Women Mapping Anping
婦女安平圖像計畫
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          Anping is the birthplace of Tainan and a representative epitome of Taiwan's development. The development of Anping was earlier than the development of the Capital City, or better put, the development of the Capital City was from Anping. Anping used to be the commercial port, the military port, and the fishing port. Today, it has become a modern metropolis that mesmerizes with beautiful scenery. This development is due to spatial configuration and the changes made due to the surrounding environment, over time. Based on the historical records, since the Ming Dynasty, the Anping has been under the rule of the Netherlands, the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, the Japanese and the National Government (Lin Chao-chen and Zheng Shui-ping as Chief Editor, "Anping District" Vol. A, 5 – 6). In every historical development period, with the changes of political, economic, military and other factors, the population and spatial structure of Anping District changed significantly. After the Qianlong and Yongzheng Emperors, the population increased due to the military officers bringing their families with them. The population of different industries also increased and the social organizations transformed from the military to local governments (Zheng Shui-ping, 1998, 126). Between 1948 and 1949, the Joint Logistics Command of Shandong moved to Anping due to the relocation of the National Government, bringing the first wave of immigrants to the Anping District after the war (Zheng Shui-ping, 1998, 135). After 1990, the second wave of immigrants came to Anping due to the planning of the Fifth Redevelopment Area in Tainan (Zheng Shui-ping, 1998, 136). In this era of change, women who have moved in from other places, or women in the local area, including the first inhabitants, the Hoklo Taiwanese, Hakkas, Han Chinese, and new immigrant women who gradually emerged to support development of internationalization in Tainan. These contributions have not received the attention they deserve in current historical accounts. With the development of humanistic geographic narratives, the local annotation and research methods begun to be reshaped, and the place was reduced in the context of globalization. In fact, this is not entirely correct. First of all, in the fields of literature, history, anthropology, sociology, medicine, science, and technology, the concept of bottom-up history has gradually been developed. The concept of history itself is required to take into account both the vertical time-oriented and horizontal spatial orientated views in order to combine the topics under discussion and the contemporary cultural and historical issues, analyzing the influences caused by identity recognition under certain time and space with the different factors, like gender, class, nationality, and others. Secondly, in recent years, pushed by the large-scale projects such as the national community re-engineering policy, the localization policy, the reproduction of Zeelandia in Tainan City, and the Anping Port National Historical Scenic Area, the current research of Anping has become a subject of concern. However, in the current Anping study, there is no female-centered research, although women have had an important position in the development of Anping. Therefore, the idea of an integrative project has emerged. In the short span of 50 years, the historical trace of the indigenous residents, foreigners, mainlanders and new immigrant women at different time points can be seen everywhere in the Anping area. Although researchers are only observing by standing outside of the Anping time and landscapethey are able to see the emotional linkages between the people and place, making Anping a meaningful and experienced world.

          In terms of Anping, the early research focuses on historical development, folklore and culture, cultural relic discovery and their introduction, while later research focuses on the investigation of traditional local society. Later, with the rise and promotion of community building concepts, research is primarily focused on architecture and space (streets) (seen in the Masters’ theses). In recent years, due to the rise of the cultural industry, the research direction tends to be tourism and community development. All of these studies cut in from the historical evolution or regional characteristics, enriching the aspects of Anping. Nevertheless, apart from being a region to be observed, studied and written, Anping can be a place worthy of attention and significant for exploration.

          Being in a place, whether it is from the time or the spatial views, the fluid nature is indeed displayed. Its locality has always been shaped by the daily life of the mobile crowd. On the other hand, due to the dominance of the political regime, the place has been presented with different appearances and connotations in different eras. Anping used to be a hub of global trade. It was once the Zeelandia and once flourished and then fell. It now contains a complicated relationship with the past and with other regions, near or far. Departing from Anping, we should not just know of a place, but also develop a way to re-understand its connection to the world.

          In this local study, it is not only hoped to take the local perspective of contemporary humanistic and geography in this interdisciplinary plan to re-understand how Anping acts as a place but also to outline Anping with the significantly necessary gender points of view in the current studies of Anping. Furthermore, the Anping will become a way through which to re-understand the world, establish a dialogue with the other local studies in the world, and place Anping on the global landscape. Furthermore, the gender dimension will be reduced, placing Anping women’s feelings towards the place as the main axis and observing the social relationship of Anping with the past and amongst places.

           安平是台南發跡之所在,也是台灣發展的代表性縮影。從空間的面向來看,安平的發展早於府城的發展,或說,府城的發展是從安平出發。從功能性來看,安平曾經是商港、軍港、漁港,到今日成為以觀光地景勝出的現代都會副都心,這樣的發展,不但緣於其自身空間配置及其與週邊環境之間的變化,也反映了時代的變遷。從歷史記載來看,自明朝以降,先後歷經荷蘭、明、清、日本、國民政府等政制(林朝成與鄭水萍主編,《安平區志》上冊,5-6);在每一個歷史發展時期,隨著政治、經濟、軍事等因素的變化,安平區的人口與空間結構皆有顯著的變化。如清雍正乾隆以後,軍旅可攜眷前來,於是人口增加,商工漁業人口增加,社會組織也逐漸由軍隊而轉為以家庭、家族為主(鄭水萍,1998,126)。又如民國三十七年至三十八年之間,因國民政府遷台,而聯勤山東青島廠遷至安平,帶來戰後安平區第一批移民潮(鄭水萍,1998,135);在民國七十九年以後,因為台南五期重劃區的規劃,促成安平區戰後第二波移民潮(鄭水萍,1998,136)。在這樣的時代變化中,由外地遷入的女性或是在地的女性,包括先住民、閩南人、客家人、漢人,還有在台南國際化的發展中漸漸湧現的新移民女性,她們的樣貌、行止等卻不曾在既有的歷史記述中得到應有的重視。

          隨著人文地理論述的發展,地方的內涵與研究方法開始被重新形構,地方在全球化的情境下看似被縮小,但其實不然。首先,無論在文學、歷史學、人類學、社會學,甚至在醫學、科技史等領域裡,都漸漸發展由下而上的歷史觀;歷史觀本身更被要求要同時兼顧直線的時間面向與水平的空間面向,以便將討論的議題與當代的文化歷史議題結合,來解析性別、階級、國族等各個因素在某一特定時空下對身分認同所造成的影響。其次,近年來在全國社區再造政策、本土化政策、台南市「再現王城」、「安平港國家歷史風景區」等大型計畫的推波助興下,安平研究成為一個受到關切的主題。但是在目前的安平研究裡卻不見以女性為主體的研究,儘管女性在安平的發展裡有重要的地位。由是之故,乃有本整合計畫案構想之興起。在短短五十年間,安平地區處處可見先住民、外籍人士、外省人、新移民女性在不同時間點所留下的歷史痕跡。我們原本是站在安平地景之外的研究者,不過,隨著觀看與融入,我們看見了人與地方之間的情感關連,安平成為有意義和可經驗的世界。

          針對安平,早年的研究重點為歷史發展、民俗與文化、文物發現與介紹,近於傳統方志的考察;其後隨著社區營造概念的興起與推動,研究以建築與空間(街道)(尤見於碩士論文)為主;近年來由於文化產業的興起,研究方向則趨於觀光與社區發展。這些研究從歷史的沿革或區域的特性切入,豐富了安平的面貌;不過,我們以為安平除了是一個可以被觀看、研究和書寫的區域外,更有其做為一個地方,值得關注和探討的意義。

          做為一個地方,安平無論從時間或空間發展的面向而言,皆呈現流動不拘的特性。它的地方性一方面經由移動人群的日常生活操演而總在型塑之中,另一方面則由於政治政權體制的主導,而在不同時代呈現不同面貌與內涵。安平曾是全球貿易往來的轉口據點,曾是王城,曾經興盛,曾經沒落,它的現在其實蘊藏著它與過去、與其他或近或遠的地方曾有的複雜關係,由安平出發,我們可以認識的不只是安平這個地方,也可由此發展出重新認識世界的方式。

          在此地方研究中,本跨領域規劃案不僅希望以當代人文地理學地方研究的角度出發,重新認識安平如何做為一個地方,更要以目前安平研究中十分需要的性別觀點來重新勾勒安平地方,更進一步地,我們將以安平地方做為認識世界的方式,與全球其它地方研究對話,在全球地景上,安置安平。亦即,我們將以性別向度切入,以安平婦女對地方的感受為主軸,勘察安平地方與過去及其與其它地方的社會關係。