Research and breeding program of shrimp for the next generation
新世代之蝦類養殖研究及育種計畫
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          According to the United Nation’s FAO, development of aquaculture is associated with several main SDGs, including SDG 2, SDG 13 and SDG 14. Currently, among >70 countries engaged in shrimp farming, Asian countries are responsible for >70% of total production. However, aquatic disease issues coupled with climatic and ecological changes are the biggest impediments of shrimp aquaculture to achieve these SDGs. Consequently, our NCKU shrimp team is committed to innovating and producing science-based solutions of disease prevention to increase sustainability of shrimp aquaculture and ultimately the world.

          Our NCKU shrimp team, lead by Profs. Chu-Fang Lo and Han-Ching Wang of the Department of Biotechnology and Bioindustry Sciences, head a state-of-the-art shrimp breeding program and have established a world-class research center, the “International Center for Scientific Development of Shrimp Aquaculture” at the AnNan Campus of NCKU in 2018. This center includes two laboratories for shrimp scientific research, two OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) reference laboratories for two emerging pathogens WSD/AHPND and two nuclear breeding center buildings. To achieve a sustainable shrimp aquaculture industry, the Center focuses on the following important issues: (1) control measures to minimize risks of disease outbreak and transmission; (2) genetically based production of specific pathogen free (SPF)/specific pathogen resistant (SPR) shrimp; and (3) shrimp culture systems that conserve energy and water. The center sustains high-quality SPF/SPR shrimp through their complete life cycle using an indoor culture facility with a high level of biosecurity, a closed circulation water system and artificial intelligence to control water quality, light, and feeding.

          To move forward on SDG14 combined with several related SDGs, in 2018 the NCKU shrimp team initiated establishment of a commercial ecosystem for shrimp farming in a 9 Ha area in eastern Taiwan. We anticipate that this system will be able to connect the scientific output of shrimp aquaculture from our NCKU shrimp team with the environment and the shrimp industry. The NCKU shrimp team also inspires students to adopt interdisciplinary learning and critical thinking to integrate society/industry and to develop confidence to address future challenges. This team, combined with outstanding NCKU professors from a variety of fields, guided the students to innovate “No problem: A Biological approach to nitrate sensing and regulation” and won a gold medal and the championship for the “Best Environment Project” in the 2017 iGEM sponsored by MIT. Our goal is to achieve academic excellence by addressing critical topics at the leading-edge of the interplay among shrimp-pathogen-environment, generate new knowledge that can be translated into key technologies, management and approaches to make cultured shrimp a more efficient and sustainable industry, thereby enhancing both science and society.

          FAO的要點提及,水產養殖的發展與數個重要全球永續發展目標SDG有所關聯,如SDG2、SDG13及SDG14等。現今約有70多個國家積極參與蝦類養殖,其中亞洲國家的產量更是佔了超過全球總產量的70%。然而,水生疾病議題、環境變遷及氣候變遷已嚴然成為蝦類水產養殖要達成這些永續發展目標的最大挑戰。因此,為了全球蝦類水產養殖的永續發展,NCKU蝦類團隊從蝦類品質及管理上著手,致力於開發以科學為基礎的疾病預防策略。

          NCKU蝦類團隊主為本校生物科技與產業科學系的羅竹芳教授及王涵青教授所帶領,引領最先進的蝦類科學育種計畫外,並自2018年於NCKU安南校區建立世界級研究中心-前瞻蝦類養殖國際研發中心。此中心內含2間蝦類學術研究實驗室、2間專為蝦類重要疾病-WSD/AHPND-所建立之世界動物衛生組織OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)參考實驗室,以及2棟核心蝦類育種中心館。為達成蝦類水產養殖的永續目標,此中心針對下列重要議題進行探討: (1) 減少疾病爆發和傳播風險的控制措施; (2) specific pathogen free (SPF)/specific pathogen resistant (SPR) 之蝦隻育種; (3)節能節水的綠色蝦類養殖系統。該中心在蝦隻生長的完整生命週期中,使用高水平生物安全性室內培養設施、封閉循環水系統以及人工智能控制水質、餵食和光照調控,以維持高品質SPF / SPR蝦隻培育。

          在結合SDG14及其他相關SDG行動上,NCKU蝦類團隊於2018年開始在台灣東部建立9公頃蝦類養殖商業生態系統,我們期待該系統將能夠將NCKU蝦類團隊的蝦類水產養殖學術成果與環境和產業做實務串連。不僅止於科學研究,NCKU 蝦類團隊也投入教育中,激勵學生進行跨域學習、對社會及產業具備批判性思維,並對未來充滿信心。該團隊與來自跨域傑出的NCKU 教授合作,共同引導學生創作 "No problem: A Biological approach to nitrate sensing and regulation",用以偵測並解決養殖水體可能所產生的汙染,此作品在2017年時獲得由麻省理工學院贊助的 iGEM的金牌和 "最佳環境專案" 總冠軍。NCKU蝦類團隊期許藉由解決蝦隻-病原體-與環境間相互作用之重要議題,以達成卓越的學術目標,進而產生可轉化為關鍵技術的新知識與管理辦法,並提升蝦類養殖效率及產業的永續發展,以增進學術與社會的福祉。