Offshore geotechnics and energy research team
海域大地與能源研究團隊
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          Taiwan's natural resources are limited and more than 99% of its energy supply is imported from other countries. In terms of either energy independence or diversity, Taiwan's energy security has a long way to go. Therefore, it is urgent for the government to develop independent energy and diversify energy sources. In line with the global trend in pursuing environmental protection and controlling greenhouse gas emissions, the 2005 National Energy Conference suggested that the government promote renewable energy power generation, and in 2011, new energy policies were announced to give considerable impetus to the "thousand offshore/onshore wind turbines" program. In 2016, the Ministry of Economic Affairs came up with a new energy-saving campaign to expedite local cooperation in promoting energy transformation. This plan pursues the nation’s goal of "nuclear-free homeland" by 2025 for an energy mix target of 50% gas-fired power generation, 30% coal-fired power and 20% renewable energy.

          Wind power is one of the most mature renewable energy sources. There are considerable commercial wind farms around the world. The Taiwan Strait is rated by international firm 4C Offshore as having the best wind resources in the world, with an estimated installed area of 5,640km2 and a gross installed capacity of 29GW. Considering the small size and dense population of the nation, land-based wind energy development is gradually approaching a saturation point. In order to continue to advance the development of renewable energy industry, offshore wind power generation is a feasible direction. To ensure the safe operation of offshore wind power, marine engineering units need to build a safe and stable offshore wind power supporting structure and foundation, and provide the load combination of wind turbines resisting different environmental conditions during their service life. Europe has rich experience in offshore wind farm development, but faced with the harsh natural environmental conditions in Taiwan, it is difficult to directly transfer the existing experience and technology for our reference, and the current international design and certification consultants are unable to provide a complete reference solution. Taiwan should seize the opportunity of promoting offshore wind farm development to integrate the domestic academic-industry collaboration for a technical synergy. This collaboration can develop the offshore wind power infrastructure design and construction technology fit for Taiwan in view of frequent typhoons and earthquakes, so as to implement the development of localized offshore wind power industry.

          A research team led by NCKU hydraulic and ocean engineering Associate Professor Yu-shu Kuo began in 2010 and has been engaged in offshore wind power and ocean energy research, promoting the offshore wind power foundation design, construction and maintenance industries’ establishment. Through the implementation of industry-academia programs, educational training, seminar exchanges, delegation exchanges and lectures, the research team has been working closely with the nation’s offshore wind power industry. Since 2014, Kuo's research team has been commissioned by domestic design consulting companies and industries to develop; (1) the analysis of cyclic axial loading behavior of the offshore wind turbine sleeve foundation, and (2) the design process of offshore wind turbine support structure with high liquefaction resistance potential in areas prone to strong earthquakes. The team has completed the stability evaluation of the large-caliber single-pile foundation and sleeve pile foundation in liquefied soil during earthquakes, and assisted the industry in the design and verification of the offshore wind turbine foundation. Since 2015, the team has been commissioned by the industry, government and academia to carry out offshore wind farm development and foundation design verification and maritime construction training. In 2017, it first proposed a quantitative risk assessment method for offshore wind farm foundation stability considering the given parameters of geotechnical design, the selection of earthquake duration and the uncertainty of terrain change caused by maritime construction. In 2018, the team carried out the energy integration project commissioned by the Ministry of Science and Technology to drill in the Changbin coastal area and evaluate the depth of hard rock face in order to assist the nation with the seismic evaluation of offshore wind farm design. The project also completed the nation’s first offshore wind turbine structure vibration monitoring and corrosion potential measurement, and assisted local developers to promote the establishment of offshore wind turbine operation and maintenance industries.

          With the installation of three offshore meteorological observation towers and two pilot offshore wind turbines in Taiwan, offshore wind farms will be connected to the grid sequentially by the end of 2019. The results of offshore wind farm seismic force assessment and wind turbine foundation stability check will be tested by recording the offshore wind farm life cycle. Professor Yu-shu Kuo has devoted himself to the development of foundation design and maintenance technology of offshore wind turbines for a long time. He has provided students with sufficient learning resources for foundation design processes, numerical simulation skills, soil geological survey planning, risk assessment of marine geohazards, determination of geotechnical design parameters, and design verification processes. Through the professional courses and practical training provided by the laboratories at the university, the team is continuing to train high-level technical talent in connecting the offshore wind power and marine energy industries in alignment with the industry-university cooperation project.

          台灣自然資源有限,超過99%之能源供給仰賴國外進口,不論以能源自主性、多元性考量,台灣之能源安全亟待提升,故發展自主能源、分散能源來源為政府施政刻不容緩之任務。配合全球追求環境保護、管制溫室氣體排放之趨勢,2005年全國能源會議建議政府推廣再生能源發電,2011年公布新能源政策,積極推動「千架海陸風力機」計畫,2016年經濟部提出新節電運動計劃,加速地方配合能源轉型推動工作,協助我國「非核家園」政策目標,於2025年達成燃氣發電50%、燃煤30%、再生能源20%之能源配比目標。

          風力發電為目前發展最成熟的再生能源之一,全球已有為數可觀的商轉風力發電場。臺灣海峽被國際機構4C Offshore Offshore評定為全世界風力資源最佳區域,預估可安裝面積達5,640km2,總裝置容量達29GW。考量我國地狹人稠,近年來陸域風電開發場域已漸趨飽和,為持續推動再生能源產業發展,開發離岸風力發電為可行之方向。為確保離岸風電運轉安全,海事工程單位需建置安全且穩定之離岸風電支撐結構與基礎,提供風機於使用年限內抵抗不同環境條件之載重組合。歐洲離岸風場開發經驗豐富,但是面對台灣嚴苛的天然環境條件,既有的經驗與技術難以直接移植供我國參考使用,國際現行之設計驗證顧問亦無法提供參考完整解決方案。我國應藉由推動離岸風場開發的機會,整合國內產學研的技術能量,針對台灣特有強颱頻震環境開發適用於我國之離岸風電基礎設計與施工技術,落實本土化離岸風電產業發展。

          成功大學水利及海洋工程學系郭玉樹教授帶領研究團隊自2010年起投入離岸風電與海洋能研究,推動離岸風電基礎設計、施工與運維產業建置,透過執行產學計畫執行、教育訓練、研討會交流、率團國際交流以及講演等方式,與國內離岸風電產業緊密結合。2014年起郭玉樹教授研究團隊接受國內設計顧問公司及產業委託,陸續開發(1) 離岸風機套管基礎受反覆軸向載重行為分析方法、(2) 強震區高液化潛勢離岸風機支撐結構設計流程,完成大口徑單樁基礎與套管樁基礎於受震液化土壤中之基礎穩定性評估,協助產業進行離岸風機基礎設計與驗證;2015起接受產官學界委託執行離岸風場開發與基礎設計驗證暨海事施工教育訓練;2017年首度提出考量地工設計參數給定、地震歷時選定及海事施工引致地形變動不確定性之離岸風機基礎穩定性風險量化評估方法;2018年透過執行科技部能源主軸整合計畫,於彰濱海域現地進行鑽探,評估堅硬岩盤面深度,以協助我國離岸風場設計地震力評估。該計畫亦完成我國首次離岸風機實機結構振動監測與腐蝕電位量測,協助本土開發商推動離岸風機運轉維護產業建置。

          隨著我國完成3座離岸海氣象觀測塔及2支先導型離岸風機建置,離岸風場將於2019年底陸續併網發電,離岸風場地震力評估與風機基礎穩定性檢核成果將受到後續離岸風場生命週期的檢驗。郭玉樹教授長期致力於離岸風機基礎設計與維護技術開發,對於基礎設計流程、數值模擬技巧、土壤地質調查規劃、海域大地災害風險評估、地工設計參數決定方法、設計驗證流程等皆提供了學生充分的學習資源,透過在校實驗室提供之專業課程與實作訓練,配合產學合作計畫持續培養銜接離岸風電與海洋能產業之高級技術人才。